Click on the steel to see the specifications and advantages of each:
TriBraze ® is a registered trademark of Kennametal, Inc.
TriBraze ® is a quenched and tempered, thru-hardened, high impact, superior abrasion resistant alloy steel with very low sulfur content (less than 0.003%).
It is specially treated for sulfide shape control which improves internal cleanliness, notch toughness, torching and formability characteristics, and weldability.
The engineered balance of alloying elements provide maximum strength and ductility while the controlled heat treating and extremely low sulfur develop an ideal hardness/toughness ratio.
Advantages & Features
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The specially designed Carbon content allows TriBraze ® to be heat treated to a high hardness while still remaining readily weldable.
The low Manganese content enhances the hardness and hardenability of the steel while promoting the ductility.
The ultra-low Phosphorous and Sulfur content make for a very clean steel and greatly enhance the toughness. Because Tri-Braze ® is specially treated for sulfide shape control, any sulfide or oxide inclusions inherent in the steel will be limited, microscopically small, and globular in shape. This in turn means a more homogeneous material with more uniform properties in the longitudinal, transverse and thru-thickness directions.
The Silicon content provides adequate deoxidation and assures a fully killed steel.
Chromium and Molybdenum promote hardenability (the depth of hardness), enhance the atmospheric corrosion resistance, and increase high temperature properties.
The Nickel addition adds to the strength and toughness but is used sparingly in order to reduce the difficulties of rolled in scale thereby producing a smoother plate surface.
Titanium benefits the Boron by combining with nitrogen, allowing the Boron addition to be effective. Boron is used to intensify the hardenability. A very small amount of Boron is required for a marked increase in the hardenability. Boron treated steels generally possess better hot and cold working characteristics than other alloy steels having equal or higher hardenability.
It also promotes grain refinement, imparts temper resistance, and forms a very hard complex Titanium Carbo-Nitride for better wear resistance. The Aluminum acts as a deoxidizer and for control of inherent grain size.
The microstructure of TriBraze ® consists mainly of tempered martensite.
An etched photomicrograph shows the presence of the Titanium Carbo-Nitrides. These small Titanium Carbo-Nitrides are randomly dispersed throughout the martensitic matrix and are extremely hard and improve the abrasion resistance of the steel.
Due to the virtual elimination of most nonmetallic inclusions, the initiation sites for crack propagation along the torched edge and/or in the heat affected zone, are also eliminated. This in turn enhances the torching characteristics and the weldability of Tri-Braze ®, due to the virtual elimination of most non-metallic inclusions, the initiation sites for crack propagation along the torched edge, and/or in the heat affected zone, are also eliminated.
Each heat of TriBraze ® is specially processed using state-of-the-art desulfurizing techniques to obtain very low sulfur contents and to achieve "sulfide shape control". Through this process any sulfide inclusions remaining in the steel are modified so that they resist deformation during hot working and remain virtually globular or spherical in nature.
In this form, inclusions have much less effect on the steel's ductility and the directional characteristics are substantially reduced. The elimination of sulfide stringers removes a source of commonly known weak points at which many types of steel failures originate.
Through this special processing, TriBraze ® has enhanced quality and greatly improved properties. Some of the benefits are noted below:
1. Internal Cleanliness:The internal cleanliness is greatly improved through virtual elimination of most inclusions. Tri-Braze ® will meet the most restrictive ASTM Ultrasonic Testing Specification (ASTM A578-82 Level 1) for internal cleanliness.
2. Notch Toughness: Charpy V-Notch impact values are higher than when conventional processing practices are used. While both the longitudinal and transverse impact energies are higher, it is the transverse values which show the greatest improvement. The transverse energy levels approach those in the longitudinal direction of a non-desulferized heat.
3. Formability: In conventionally processed steels a much larger minimum bend radii is needed when the bend axis is parallel to the plate length (transverse bend) than when the bend axis is perpendicular to the plate length (longitudinal bend). In many cases, these so called "hard way" bends were avoided due to possible breakage. Through sulfide shape control processing' "hard way" bends are no longer the hard way. Bends can be made in either direction with equal ease. As a general rule, minimum bend radii recommended for longitudinal bends in conventionally treated steels can be used for transverse bends in desulfurized steels.
For Drilling TriBraze ®
For Tapping Holes in TriBraze ®:
Moderate forming can be satisfactorily performed in all thicknesses, provided adequate power is available and proper procedures are used.
Generally, the power required to form TriBraze ® will be approximately 4 times that required for carbon steel, or 40% more than forming AR 400.
The following will assist you in cold forming TriBraze ®
Flame cut and rough edges should be snagged with a grinder in the bend area.
Use the largest radii permissible. (8 times the plate thickness is generally the minimum radius with bend lines perpendicular to final rolling direction of plate.)
If bend lines must be parallel to the final rolling direction (grain direction), the bend radius must increased (each TriBraze ® plate is marked with the grain direction).
Spring-back allowances must be considered and will depend on plate thickness and severity of the bend.
For the purpose of estimating forming equipment required to form TriBraze ®, the tensile strength may be estimated by multiplying the BHN value by 500.
Lower hardness TriBraze ® can be furnished for more severe forming requirements with a slight decrease in wear resistant properties.
The first consideration for welding TriBraze ® is the correct welding alloy. Unlike welding AR400 or AR500, which specify 7018 for welding, TriBraze ® has a higher concentration of chromium, nickel and molybdenum. Standard 7018 does not contain enough alloy to work with this true alloy steel.
We recommend welding TriBraze ® with TriWeld 3 TM stick or TriWeld-FCG TM wire to assure successful welds.
The amount of heat introduced into the weld can have drastic effects on the joint strength and wear plate hardness.
Large heat inputs result in wide heat affected zones that are low in hardness and impact properties. Narrow heat affected zones are kept low by using small beads and multiple passes.
Stringer passes should be made on alternating sides to help control distortion. Weave beads should avoided. If it is absolutely necessary to use weave beads, the deposit width should be limited to three (3) times the electrode diameter or five (5) times the diameter for wire.
Avoid these pitfalls when welding TriBraze ®:
1. Hydrogen Cracking
Undercutting is probably the most common of all welding defects. There are many causes but the most common is excess travel speed...quite simply, there is not enough weld metal to fill the joint.
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Super-C ® is a registered trademark of Kennametal, Inc.
Super-C ® is a composite plate consisting of a low carbon steel base plate and an alloyed wear resistant cladding. The unique Kennametal Tricon cladding process produces a plate with a surface that is harder, tougher, and more wear resistant than plate obtained by any other process. The low carbon steel base plate enables the plate to be welded, bolted or studded to existing structures, while the cladding provides a premier wear surface capable of working in the most hostile environments. Super-C ® can be successfully applied in applications involving severe abrasion and moderate impact.
Advantages / Features
The microstructure of Super-C ® is a mixture of high volume hexagonal shaped chromium carbides in a tough austenitic steel matrix. Through a proprietary process, the carbides are perpendicularly aligned to the surface of the clad, making them extremely difficult to dislodge or wear.
Super-C ® is normally supplied with plasma arc cut edges ready for welding. Welding to carbon steel support structures is accomplished with Multi-Alloy 85 TM electrodes using the proper welding procedures. Care should be exercised to prevent the cladding portion of the plate from diluting the fillet weld.
Tri-Weld C TM hardfacing electrodes are used to provide protection to the fillet welds. Support structures other than carbon steel, such as aluminum or manganese steel, will require compatible electrodes and procedures.
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Cold Forming Super-C ®
Grinding Super-C ®
Although less corrosion resistant than 300-series stainless steel grades, Duracorr ® is substantially more corrosion resistant than weathering, painted or galvanized steels. Duracorr ® develops a brown patina when used in non-abrasive, atmospheric conditions. Duracorr ® is listed in ASTM A240 as UNS designation S41003. The steel may be used in a number of applications requiring strength and corrosion resistance.
Contact Rich Fercy for more information.
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Duracorr ® exhibits a fine-grained microstructure of ferrite and tempered martensite that imparts attractive fabrication characteristics. Duracorr is formable and weldable when the guidelines below are followed.
If the edges are sheared, the 1/2t radius only applies to bends perpendicular to the major rolling direction. Bends parallel to the major rolling direction should use a 2t minimum bend radius. The 1/2t guideline may be used for all orientations if the complete cold worked sheared edge (face and burr) in the location of the bend is ground removing approximately 0.05".
Duracorr ® is weldable with most standard electric arc and resistance welding techniques, providing appropriate procedures are followed. Duracorr ®can be welded to itself and to stainless and carbon steels. It does not develop the higher hardness associated with martensitic stainless steels, nor the coarse-grain, low-toughness properties found in ferritic stainless steels. The dual phase microstructure of austenite plus ferrite in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) during welding limits grain growth in the HAZ, enhancing toughness in weld areas. Due to the variety of steels and welding processes used, the following general guidelines are recommended for welding Duracorr ®.
Welding qualification procedures should be established for each welding process using AWS D1.1. Contact Rich Fercy if assistance is required.
Electrodes of the AWS 309L, 308L, 316L types or equivalent should be used with the current settings at the low to middle range recommended by the electrode manufacturer. Use of AWS 309L is preferred when welding Duracorr ® to other steels.
The heat input during welding should be minimized to produce a weldment (weld and heat affected zone) with optimum properties.
The SMAW, GMAW, GTAW and FCAW processes have been routinely used. Because of the high heat input inherent in SAW, it is rarely used. When SAW is used, care must be taken to minimize dilution of the weld metal.
A plate temperature of +60°F is recommended for Duracorr ®. If the steel being welded to Duracorr ® requires additional preheat, the requirements for that steel should be followed.
Parts to be welded should be free of loose or thick scale, moisture, grease or other foreign materials that could influence weld quality.
High Temperature Tensile Properties
Often, Duracorr may be in contact with carbon steel in the fabrication of different products. Such a design feature may promote galvanic corrosion. When two different metals touch in a corrosive solution, a "galvanic couple" is created and accelerated corrosion of the less corrosion-resistant metal occurs. This effect can be reduced if the surface area of the carbon steel is large compared to the area of Duracorr. If the reverse is present, for example, carbon steel rivets in Duracorr the carbon steel will corrode at a significantly higher rate. Therefore, it is important to use stainless rivets, bolts or interior structural elements, if Duracorr is in contact with a corrosive environment. The environment in which Duracorr is used dictates its applicability. Duracorr has been used in challenging corrosive applications including rail cars and equipment for processing high sulfur coal, water tanks in street sweepers, and processing equipment for sugar beets. Contact Rich Fercy to review other specific environmental applications.
Tricon ® AR400
A 400 BHN abrasion resistant steel. The industry standard for wear resistant steel. Has a hard face about 0.020" thick.
If you have always used AR400 and are searching for longer material life and reduced downtime, check out TriBraze ®. The testimonials will show how people in your industry have acheived longer wear life by switching from AR400 to TriBraze ®.
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Tricon ® AR500
A 500 BHN abrasion resistant steel. Good in flat applications. Difficult to form and weld.
If you like AR500 and are searching for longer life, easier forming and welding with reduced downtime, check out TriBraze ®. The testimonials will show how people in your industry have acheived longer wear life by switching from AR500 to TriBraze ®.
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